Royal Dutch Shell, failed in seizing the shell.ir

October 11th, 2012

We would like to congratulate and inform the users of this website that the Dutch–British company, Royal Dutch Shell, failed in stopping the website’s activity and seizing the shell.ir website.

Finally, after two years of legal disputes between shell.ir domain owner and Shell company, Tehran Province Appeals Court issued its final verdict in favor of shell.ir domain owner. Shell had sought transferring the ownership of this domain to its company with false claims. Tehran Public Court initially had denied all charges and then, following Shell’s appeal request, Tehran Province Appeals Court also rejected this objection and issued its conclusive verdict. Therefore, the court rejected Shell’s request regarding transferring the domain to that company. By issuance of the final verdict of the court, Shell failed in stopping the legal activity of this website and also seizing shell.ir domain address and adding it to the list of domains owned by this company.

It is worth mentioning that nearly 3 years ago when the owner of this domain faced with the domineering request of Shell and a 3-days deadline (!) for transferring the domain to Shell, he was determined to defend his legal rights against this extravagance. Therefore, by forming a team of the most experienced lawyers in the field of intellectual property and trademarks and by enduring copious financial and spiritual costs, he succeeded in proving his right of ownership and use of the domain address shell.ir.

Z Shell

May 8th, 2010

The Z shell (zsh) is a Unix shell that can be used as an interactive login shell and as a powerful command interpreter for shell scripting. Zsh can be thought of as an extended bourne shell with a large number of improvements, including some of the most useful features of bash, ksh, and tcsh.

The first version of zsh was written by Paul Falstad in 1990 when he was a student at Princeton University. The name zsh derives from Zhong Shao, then a teaching assistant at Princeton University. Paul Falstad thought that Shao’s login name, “zsh”, was a good name for a shell.

Features of note include:
Programmable command line completion that can help the user type both options and arguments for most used commands, with out-of-the-box support for several hundred commands
Sharing of command history among all running shells
Extended file globbing allows file specification without needing to run an external program such as find
Improved variable/array handling
Editing of multi-line commands in a single buffer
Spelling correction
Various compatibility modes, e.g. zsh can pretend to be a Bourne shell when run as /bin/sh
Themeable prompts, including the ability to put prompt information on the right side of the screen and have it auto-hide when typing a long command
Fully customizable
Attesting to the sheer size of this shell is the first sentence of the shell’s manual page, which reads “Because zsh contains many features, the zsh manual has been split into a number of sections”, and then goes on to list thirteen items.

Windows Shell

May 8th, 2010

Windows Shell is the most visible aspect of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems. The shell is the container inside of which the entire user interface is presented, including the Task bar, the Desktop, Windows Explorer, as well as many of the dialog boxes and interface controls, but also describes the past shells, like MS-DOS Executive and Program Manager.

The default Windows shell is called Explorer (confusingly, the same as the MS file browser) ? this is the program that determines the look of your desktop, i.e. it creates the task bar, system tray, start menu etc.

Windows 1 and 2 – Early UI
Just after the PC hit the market (August 1981), a project named “Interface Manager” started. It was renamed to “Windows” because the programmers talked very much about the zones called “windows” on the screen. Rowland Hanson, the head of marketing at Microsoft, convinced the company that the name Windows would be a more appealing name to consumers. The first Windows pre-version was presented in November 1983. It used Word for DOS-like menus at the bottom of the screen. The 1.0 version (it was numbered 1.01; it is rumored that version 1.00 was actually released but quickly pulled due to a severe flaw), released in November 1985, used pull-down menus like the early Macintosh System 1.x (Microsoft actually licensed GUI elements from Apple). The shell was a file manager (not a program manager) called “MS-DOS Executive”. Applications could be launched from the MS-DOS Executive which minimized itself. The minimizing (called “iconing”) was done by transforming the windows into an icon which was placed at the bottom of the screen, in a special minimized windows zone. The maximizing (called “zooming”) could extend the window over the minimized windows zone. Windows could not be overlapped, but they were instead “tiled”. As a result, two windows could not be “zoomed” at the same time.

Windows 2.0 was an interface-based release. The new window controls were introduced with this release, with the new “minimize” and “maximize” terminology. Windows could be overlapped and the minimized window icons could be moved freely on the desktop.

OS/2 1.x
As of version 1.1, launched in 1988, the new OS/2 operating system from IBM introduced a new GUI, called the Presentation Manager. The default shell (a program) was a program manager (not a file manager like in Windows 1.x and 2.x) called “Start Programs”. Versions 1.2 and 1.3 renamed “Start Programs” to “Desktop Manager”, added 16-colour icons support and many more.

Windows 3.x, NT 3.x – The First Revolution
Windows 3.0, introduced in May 1990, inherited the OS/2 GUI. The new “Program Manager” was a simple “front end” where the “groups” and icons had no relation to the actual file system. A background could be put on the desktop, and the window controls were redesigned. The buttons were all in 3-D appearance (the windows weren’t). As a result, the Windows 3.0 operating environment was a success. Later versions of Windows 3.x introduced Screen Savers.

The new operating system from Microsoft, “Windows NT”, featured the same GUI in the first version (3.1), like Windows 3.1x.

Windows 95C, 98 – “Nashville”
The growing popularity of the World Wide Web forced Microsoft to release its own browser, dubbed “Internet Explorer” which was based on technology licensed from Spyglass. In early 1996, Netscape announced that the next release of its browser, Netscape, would completely integrate with Windows and add a new shell, codenamed “Constellation”. Microsoft started working on a similar Internet Explorer release, codenamed “Nashville”. Internet Explorer 4.0 was redesigned and resulted in two products: the standalone IE4 which replaced the Windows shell with a new “Active Desktop” shell and the future Windows releases, like Windows 95C and Windows 98, which integrated Internet Explorer and Active Desktop in the shell.